A word reference is a posting of words in at least one explicit dialects, frequently orchestrated in order (or by radical and stroke for ideographic dialects), which may remember data

for definitions, use, derivations, elocutions, interpretation, etc.[1] or a book of words in a single language with their counterparts in another, occasionally known as a lexicon.[1] It is a lexicographical

reference that shows between connections among the data.[2]

A wide differentiation is made among general and concentrated word references.

Specific word references remember words for master fields, as opposed to a total scope of words in the language.

Lexical things that depict ideas in explicit fields are typically called terms rather than words, despite the fact that there is no agreement whether lexicology and phrasing are two

In principle, general word references are supposed[citation needed] to be semasiological, planning word to definition, while specific word references should be onomasiological, first distinguishing ideas and afterward setting up

Practically speaking, the two methodologies are utilized for both types.[3] There are different sorts of word references that don’t fit conveniently into the above differentiation, for example bilingual (interpretation)

word references, word references of equivalents (thesauri), and rhyming word references.

The word reference (inadequate) is typically perceived to allude to a universally useful monolingual dictionary.[4]

There is additionally a difference between prescriptive or enlightening word references; the previous reflect what is viewed as right utilization of the language while the last reflect recorded real use.

Elaborate signs (for example “casual” or “revolting”) in numerous advanced word references are additionally considered by some to be not exactly dispassionately descriptive.[5]

Despite the fact that the primary recorded word references go back to Sumerian occasions (these were bilingual word references), the efficient investigation of word references as objects of logical premium

themselves is a twentieth century endeavor, called etymology, and to a great extent started by Ladislav Zgusta.[4] The introduction of the new control was not without discussion, the commonsense word

reference producers being at times blamed by others for “amazing” absence of technique and basic self reflection.[6]

The most seasoned realized word references were Akkadian Empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, found in Ebla (present day Syria) and dated about 2300 BCE.[7] The mid second thousand

years BCE Urra=hubullu glossary is the standard Babylonian form of such bilingual Sumerian wordlists.

third century BCE Erya, is the soonest enduring monolingual word reference; albeit a few sources refer to the c.

800 BCE Shizhoupian as a “word reference”, current grant thinks of it as a calligraphic summary of Chinese characters from Zhou line bronzes.

fourth century BCE) composed a spearheading jargon Disorderly Words (Ἄτακτοι γλῶσσαι, Átaktoi glôssai) which clarified the implications of uncommon Homeric and other artistic words, words from nearby vernaculars, and

first century CE) composed the most established enduring Homeric lexicon.[7] The principal Sanskrit word reference, the Amarakośa, was composed by Amara Sinha c.

Written in section, it recorded around 10,000 words.

As indicated by the Nihon Shoki, the main Japanese word reference was the tragically missing 682 CE Niina glossary of Chinese characters.

The most established existing Japanese word reference, the c.

835 CE Tenrei Banshō Meigi, was additionally a glossary of composed Chinese.

In Frahang-I Pahlavig, Aramaic heterograms are recorded along with their interpretation in Middle Persian language and phonetic record in Pazand letter set.

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